2004 Honda S2000 - Powertrain
The S2000 powertrain uses a front-engine/rear-wheel-drive layout. The longitudinally mounted engine is mated to a 6-speed, close-ratio manual transmission. A propeller shaft carries the output of the transmission to a frame-mounted limited-slip differential. The differential drives the rear wheels via separate axle shafts.
The 2.2-liter, aluminum-alloy, inline 4-cylinder S2000 engine produces 240 hp @ 7800 rpm and 162 lb.-ft. of torque @ 6500 rpm. The cylinder head is also made of aluminum alloy and features dual overhead camshafts, 4 valves per cylinder and VTEC (Honda's variable valve-timing system) on both the intake and exhaust valves. Fuel induction is via Honda's sequential, Multi-Point Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI) and the ignition system is a high-voltage, computer-controlled direct type with individual spark coils for each cylinder. The engine's exhaust emissions qualify the S2000 as a Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) in California.
New for 2004
Objectives for enhancing the 2004 S2000 powertrain focus on improved power delivery at low and mid-range rpms while maintaining the high-revving, race bred nature of the S2000 engine.
Mechanical improvements have been made to many components of the engine and transmission to enhance everyday street driving appeal and the S2000's capabilities on the track. More torque is available at lower rpms while the overall enhanced power band increases dynamic transitional capabilities, i.e. exiting corners faster. Significant changes include:
- 2.2-liter engine displacement (increased from 2.0 liters)
- Horsepower and torque band increased 4- to 10-percent between 1000 rpm and 8000 rpm with useful high performance power now starting at 3000 rpm.
- Transmission gear ratios revised (4% lower on gears one through four)
- Transmission efficiency and direct feel improved with carbon synchronizers
2004 S2000 vs. 2003 S2000
Between 1000 rpm and 8000 rpm, available torque and horsepower increase between 4 and 10 percent. Additionally, useful power for high performance acceleration begins at about 3000 rpm compared to about 6000 rpm on the 2000 - 2003 models. The performance improvement at lower rpm ranges can be attributed to the increase in displacement and revised valvetrain tuning. Lower gear ratios on gears one through four further magnify the new performance characteristics of the engine.
The enhanced powerband benefits acceleration response at lower rpms and improves the overall "powerful feel" of the car in everyday driving. To increase the engine displacement, powerband, and direct transmission feel of the vehicle, the following specifications and components have changed:
|Engine||2.2-liter DOHC VTEC||2.0-liter DOHC VTEC||+ 0.2 liters, attributable to engine stroke change|
|Horsepower||240 @ 7800 rpm||240 @ 8300 rpm||+ 0 hp @ -500 rpm, same peak horsepower with overall powerband characteristics strengthened by 4% to 10% between 1000 and 8000 rpm|
|Torque (lbs.-ft.)||162 @ 6500 rpm||153 @ 7500 rpm||+9 lb.-ft. @ -1000 rpm with improved powerband characteristics strengthened by 4% - 10% between 1000 and 8000 rpm. Max torque increases 5%.|
|Rev Limit / Fuel Cutoff)||8000/8200||8800/9000||Piston travel configuration decreases rpm limit by 9% because of piston speed increase.|
|Bore x Stroke (mm)||87.0x90.7||87.0x 84.0||0.0x+6.7|
|Crankshaft Half Stroke (mm)||45.3||42.0||+3.3 (Crankshaft determines stroke length and creates displacement change)|
|Connecting Rod Length (mm)||149.65||153.0||-3.35 (Calibrated for crankshaft half stroke)|
|VTEC (low-speed profile)||Reconfigured||
||Low-speed intake duration decreased and exhaust duration increased for more torque|
|VTEC (high-speed profile)||Reconfigured||
||High-speed intake and exhaust duration slightly decreased for torque and top horsepower|
Gears 1-4 = 4% lower for performance
Gear 5 = 1% lower
Gear 6 = 2% higher
|Synchronizers||Carbon (Double carbon single cone on 1-2 and single carbon cone on 3-6)||Brass (Triple Cone or double cone on gears 1-4)||Carbon material reduces mechanical loss and increases capacity of synchronizer|
2004 Powertrain Main Features
The following are the main features of the S2000 powertrain:
2.2-Liter (2178 cc) VTEC Engine
- 8000rpm rev limit
- 240 hp @ 7800 rpm
- 162 lb.-ft. of torque @ 6500 rpm
- 0-60 mph acceleration in less than 6 seconds
- Compact, lightweight engine design aids in ideal (50/50) weight distribution
- FRM (Fiber-Reinforced Metal) cylinder liners
- 87.0 mm bore X 90.7 mm stroke contributes to increased torque band
- Rigid aluminum (ladder-type) main bearing support, with cast-iron bearing inserts, enhances engine durability
- Lightweight forged-aluminum pistons and heat-treated (carburized), forged-steel connecting rods add durability
- Full-floating piston pins eliminate piston noise during warm-up
- High-volume oil pump with silent chain drive
- Compact, high-efficiency oil cooler
- Cast-aluminum oil pan helps minimize engine noise and enhances oil cooling
- 11.1:1 compression ratio
- Compact, DOHC VTEC cylinder head and valvetrain
- Lightweight, MIM (Metal-Injection Molded), sintered-steel rocker arms
- Low-friction roller-bearing cam-followers
- Compact, 2-stage cam-drive with silent chain, scissors gears and fully automatic tensioner
- Hollow camshafts function as lubrication path for VTEC valvetrain
- Sequential, Multi-Point Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
- Intake system with straight inlet ports and low-back pressure exhaust system
- Electric-motor-driven, multi-port secondary air-assist injection system helps lower hydrocarbon emissions
- Meets California's stringent Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standard
- Compact engine ancillary drive system uses a serpentine drive belt with automatic tensioner
- Compact engine ancillaries, such as air-conditioning compressor and water pump, save weight and take up less space
- Direct-ignition system with long-lasting platinum-tipped spark plugs
- Low back pressure, metal-honeycomb catalytic converter
- Longitudinally mounted 6-speed manual transmission
- Transmission lubrication pump enhances durability
- Reduced shift effort and direct feel from carbon synchronizers on gears one through six
- Short-throw, direct shift linkage
- Compact pull-type clutch mechanism and high-performance clutch
- Propeller shaft uses highly durable constant-velocity joints
- Torsen limited-slip differential
- Highly rigid axle shafts utilize stronger flanged ends in place of splines
S2000 Engine Design
Honda engineers designed the S2000 to achieve an ideal 50/50 weight distribution, a low yaw moment and a low center of gravity. They accomplished this by placing the engine and drivetrain as far back in the chassis as possible, and by designing the engine to be very compact. In addition, many of the engine's components have been designed to be as compact and as lightweight as possible. The engine code designation is F22C1.
Compact High-Output Engine Block
The S2000 engine block is a one-piece, open-deck aluminum-alloy die casting. Of special note are the block's FRM (Fiber-Reinforced Metal) cylinder liners cast integral with the block. FRM is a composite material consisting of carbon fibers embedded in an aluminum oxide matrix (aluminum oxide is a ceramic material used for spark-plug insulators). As a cylinder lining, FRM offers several advantages over conventional ferrous-metal liners, including lower weight, faster heat transfer and a greater resistance to wear. Additionally, "dummy head honing," a process where the engine block cylinders are honed with a "dummy" cylinder head tightened to the block, improves machining accuracy for stability of piston movement.
For 2004, cylinder bore is 3.42 in. (87.0 mm) and the stroke is 3.57 in. (90.7 mm). This results in a slightly "over square" 1: 1.04 bore-stroke ratio that facilitates good torque characteristics at lower rpm while delivering high-rpm performance.
For comparison, the 2000-2003 model's cylinder bore is 3.42 in. (87.0 mm) and the stroke is 3.30 in. (84.0 mm) that results in a nearly "square" 1: 0.96 bore-stroke ratio.
The high-revving nature of the S2000 engine necessitated the use of special high-strength, lightweight forged-aluminum pistons). The piston's minimal skirt area contributes to friction reduction. The carburized connecting rods and crankshaft, also steel forgings, are heat-treated for added toughness.
Ladder-Type Main-Bearing Carrier
The S2000 engine's large ladder-type, cast-aluminum stiffener, with cast-iron bearing inserts, runs the full length and width of the lower engine block and contributes considerably to engine rigidity.
Cast-Aluminum Oil Pan
A cast-aluminum oil pan bolts to the bottom of the main-bearing carrier. The pan is finned to help dissipate heat, and the use of an aluminum casting instead of a steel stamping provides additional rigidity to the engine and transmission. In addition, cast-aluminum radiates less engine noise than a customary steel-stamped pan.
DOHC VTEC Cylinder Head
The S2000 engine's DOHC cylinder head is a new, highly compact design, and like the engine block, is an aluminum-alloy die casting. The combustion chambers are a pent-roof shape, with four valves for optimum high-rpm airflow. A narrow (51-degree) included angle between the intake and exhaust valves helps to concentrate air and fuel around the central spark plug, resulting in more complete combustion and greater efficiency. The valve springs are a single-element, round-profile type whose high-rpm design borrows heavily from Honda's racing-engine building experience.
VTEC Variable Valve Timing
The S2000 engine uses a performance version of Honda's innovative variable valve-timing system on both the intake and exhaust valves (VTEC stands for Variable Valve-Timing and Lift Electronic Control). VTEC maximizes the S2000 engine's volumetric efficiency -- packing the maximum amount of air and fuel into the combustion chamber on each intake stroke and expelling the maximum amount of exhaust gases on the exhaust stroke.
VTEC works by varying valve timing and lift to compensate for the time delay and out-of-phase arrival of the air-fuel charge at the intake valve. Ideally, the valves should remain open for a short duration at low engine speeds and for a longer duration at high engine speeds-and that is precisely how VTEC works.
Low- and Medium-Speed Operation
In the S2000 VTEC engine, each intake and exhaust valve uses two different cam-lobe profiles: one for low engine speeds and a second for high engine speeds. From idle to around 6000 rpm, the two intake and exhaust valve cam followers at each cylinder are actuated by low-rpm cam lobes. Their short duration and low lift ensures good cylinder-filling at low engine speeds.
At around 6000 rpm (depending on throttle position), an electronic control unit commands a spool valve to open and send oil pressure to pins in the cam followers. Under pressure, the pins lock the two intake-valve followers and the two exhaust-valve followers to a third follower. Until this moment, this third follower has been independently following the contour of a separate high-lift, long-duration cam lobe. Now the valves are actuated by the third follower and more closely match the induction and exhaust timing required for optimum torque at high engine speeds.
Compact Camshaft Drive
The S2000 engine's dual overhead camshafts feature a space-efficient cam-drive consisting of a crankshaft-driven, silent-chain primary drive and a geared-secondary drive. The chain, along with a chain guide and an automatic tensioner, is located in an enclosed gallery at the front of the engine block.
The primary chain turns an idler gear at its upper end, which drives the second stage-the intake and exhaust camshaft gears. The camshaft gears are smaller in diameter than conventional toothed sprockets, which allow the camshafts to be placed closer together, further saving space. Geared drives are widely used in racing engines because of their dependability and greater timing accuracy at high rpm.
Each camshaft gear is a split (scissors) type, consisting of two concentric, spring-loaded gears, set at a slight angle from each other. When engaging the teeth of the idler gear, the spring-loaded split teeth of the cam gear take up any backlash, ensuring smooth and quiet operation.
Lightweight VTEC Cam Followers
Because of the high-rpm nature of the S2000 engine and the need to save space, Honda engineers devised a new VTEC cam follower system. The central element in DOHC VTEC system is a roller-type, coaxial VTEC cam follower. The adoption of a roller in the area in contact with the camshafts helps further reduce friction losses. At the same time, a reduced inertial moment has been made possible by integrating the sliding pin used to operate the cam profile switch into the roller structure.
A precise metal-injection molding process is used to obtain the higher degree of rocker-arm finish required by the roller-type, coaxial VTEC design. These innovations reduce valvetrain friction by approximately 70 percent. This allows the use of the high-performance, high-lift cam profile over an extended range of engine speeds, so engine response and power output remain high all the way to its 8000 rpm redline.
The two overhead camshafts are hollow in order to supply oil to the valvetrain with lubrication. This eliminates the need for a separate oil line and nozzles, which helps to simplify the cylinder-head lubrication system.
Coaxial Roller-Bearing Cam Followers
The cam followers use roller-element bearings to help minimize friction. Space efficiency occurs by placing these roller elements so that they are concentric with the hydraulic pistons of the VTEC system.
Powdered-Metal, Injection-Molded, Sintered Steel-Alloy Cam Followers
Honda engineers use a powdered-metal injection-molding process to make the S2000 engine's VTEC cam followers. In this process, powdered steel alloy is mixed with a binder that allows it to be injected into a mold, in much the same way that plastic items are injection-molded. The part is then removed from the mold and the binder is removed by heating. The rocker arm is then sintered, which involves heating the metal to just under its melting point in a special furnace so that the steel particles weld together. Complex shapes such as the S2000 engine's cam followers are more produced by metal injection molding.
Externally Mounted Oil Pump
To help minimize engine length, Honda engineers placed the oil pump at the bottom of the engine block instead of its usual location at the front of the crankshaft. This placement provides engine compactness, and the pump scavenges oil more efficiently. Additionally, the oil pump's low placement helps pressurize the lubrication system more quickly during engine startup.
The oil pump itself also is a compact design that uses a smaller, high-speed rotor and suction-pickup ports on both sides of the pump body. The new design supplies a greater volume of oil to the engine at all engine speeds. The oil pump is driven via a silent chain connected to the crankshaft.
Compact Engine Ancillary Drive
The system for the engine ancillaries, such as the alternator, air-conditioning compressor and water pump, can take up considerable space at the front of the engine. So Honda engineers locate them at the side of the engine block (a practice commonly used on racing engines) and designed a compact drive system that uses both sides of a serpentine belt. An automatic tensioner is built into the drive system.
Instead of a distributor, the S2000 engine uses a computer-controlled direct-ignition system with individual high-voltage coils located at each spark plug. The spark plugs have non-fouling platinum tips for long life.
Timing data for the ignition system is supplied to the engine's Electronic Control Module by a pair of TDC (Top-Dead Center) sensors-one located on each camshaft-and a toothed-wheel crank-angle sensor located on the crankshaft. The Electronic Control Module automatically adjusts engine spark timing and dwell based on throttle opening, engine rpm, knock-sensor data, etc.
Integrated Air-Intake System
In order to meet the S2000 engine's performance requirements, the intake system has to be capable of moving a large volume of air. In order to achieve this, Honda engineers place the entire intake system in the space in front of the engine (made possible by the engine's extreme rearward location in the engine compartment). In this location the system can draw cool air directly from in front of the main-forward engine-compartment bulkhead. Since the system does not sit on top of the engine, it also allows for a lower hood height and better forward visibility.
The actual intake system consists of a large, 5.5-liter expansion chamber, a low-resistance, conical axial-flow air filter and a main resonator (intake-noise attenuator). From the air cleaner, intake air flows in a short, direct path to four large-section, tuned intake runners. The runners, along with the cylinder-head intake ports, have been carefully angled in order to provide the shortest, straightest airflow path into each cylinder.
Multi-Point Programmed Fuel Injection
The fuel-induction system uses Honda Multi-Point Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI). PGM-FI is a timed, sequential system with sensors for throttle position, coolant temperature, crankshaft angle, intake-manifold pressure, atmospheric pressure, intake-air temperature, vehicle speed and exhaust-gas oxygen content. Information from these sensors is fed to an Electronic Control Module, which then decides when to activate each injector. PGM-FI can alter fuel delivery to match the engine's needs under varying environmental and engine-load conditions.
Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) Technology
Honda engineers designed the S2000 engine to have a high power output and also to be a Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) engine. In order to accomplish this goal, they installed a high-flow, metallic honeycomb catalyst and new secondary air-injection system. An ECM-controlled electric air pump feeds fresh air into the exhaust secondary air-injection system. This allows for very quick heating of the catalytic converter and low exhaust backpressure.
Metallic Honeycomb Catalyst
The S2000 exhaust system uses a thin-walled, low-heat radiating metal honeycomb catalytic converter in place of the more traditional ceramic unit.. The catalyst's low backpressure also contributes to better engine performance.
Low-Restriction Exhaust System
The S2000's engine features a low-restriction, high-efficiency exhaust system. The manifold uses large-diameter stainless-steel tubing, and is a 4-into-2-into-1 design that promotes efficient gas flow. A pre-chamber and two main silencers that utilize a "U-turn" pipe arrangement further reduce back pressure.
6-Speed Manual Transmission Overview
The 2004 S2000 has a 6-speed manual transmission. A limited-slip differential was chosen to ensure continuous application of power to the rear wheels, especially when cornering. The transmission and entire drivetrain are designed to be highly rigid and as compact and lightweight as possible, making the vehicle more responsive to driver input and increasing the driver's enjoyment and feel for the car.
Longitudinally Mounted 6-Speed Manual Transmission
In the S2000 transmission, all six speeds and reverse are on two parallel shafts. Both transmission shafts are coupled at the output end. This reduces the load on the gear synchronizers by as much as 40 percent. Shift loads are also reduced, making shifting easier. The use of carbon synchronizers for all forward gears helps reduce shift effort. Reverse gear uses single-cone brass synchronizer for smoother shifting and quieter operation.
Transmission Gear Ratios
|Secondary Gear Reduction||1.208||1.160||4% lower|
|Final Drive||4.100||4.100||No change|
|*Net gear ratio change occurs through modification of the secondary gear reduction ratio inside the transmission.|
Short-Stroke, Direct Shift Linkage
The transmission shift linkage is mounted on the top of the transmission case, helping to eliminate play in the linkage and provide optimum feel when changing gears. Shift throws are short and direct. Shift detents and lateral-spring pressure are set so that the shift-lever neutral position lies on the 3rd-gear/4th-gear axis.
The shift lever is aluminum alloy wrapped in genuine leather and floats in a rubber mounting that absorbs vibration. Reverse-gear lockout is a mechanical type, which can be released by pushing the shift lever downward.
Separate Lubrication Pump Enhances Durability
Racing experience taught Honda engineers that high-performance transmissions need a separate lubrication system, so the S2000 manual transmission has its own lubrication pump. The pump provides positive and reliable lubrication, regardless of G-loading, and helps to prolong gear and synchronizer life.
Compact Heavy-Duty, Pull-Type Clutch
The 2004 S2000 employs a pull-type clutch mechanism and reinforced friction materials better suited to the high-rpm nature of the powertrain.
Low-Vibration Propeller Shaft
The propeller shaft that takes power to the rear differential in the S2000 is a strong, one-piece design. To reduce noise and vibration from the shaft, Honda engineers specified sliding, constant-velocity joints at both ends, instead of the more common U-joints. Constant-velocity joints also transmit power more uniformly over a range of angles.
The Torsen limited-slip differential (clutchless type) used in the S2000 is specifically adapted for high power output and automatically transmits drive torque to the wheel and tire with the most traction, thereby limiting wheel spin.
One-Piece, Highly Rigid Axle Shafts
Power is transmitted from the differential to the rear wheels via a set of rigid, one-piece axle shafts. The shafts' increased level of rigidity improves the powertrain's response to throttle input.